Every child, male or female has the human right to education, as a fundamental human right setup in Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 which are also endorsed by constitutions of Pakistan 1973 but after 18th amendment in the constitutions a new article was included which known as Article 25A which ask the state to provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such manner as may be determined by law.
In spite the universal declarations, Pakistani constitutions and Islamic teachings, the literacy rate in Pakistan is very low and education still not given much importance in our country especially.
According to a report 2012, 84 percent children of from age 6 to 16 years were reportedly enrolled in the schools of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa while around 14 percent of the children were not given a chance to go to schools. Similarly the number of drop out students in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa was recorded at 14 percent.
The enrollment of children in schools, keeping in mind the law and order situation of KP where the militants easily target the schools, can be termed healthy however, only six children out of fourteen children enrolled in class one reach were able to complete their 10 years of basic studies in schools.
One of the major issues related to the low literacy rate in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is the drop out of the schoolchildren and this rate is increasing with each passing year but still the government is not taking any concrete steps to stop this dropout. At the same time the parents are also equally responsible for this situation.
If we look at the statistics 79% percent of mothers have not completed their primary schooling while fifty-two percent of fathers of school going children in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa had not completed their primary education.
It shows that how an uneducated father or mother would know the importance for educating their kids. They would definitely prefer to make their children enable earn livelihood for the family rather than wasting children life in the schools.
The argument could be termed false as large numbers of highly educated individuals’ parents have not gone to schools and there are hundreds of such illiterate families who like to see their children get high degrees. The factor responsible is the existence of different types of education systems in our province where different mediums of instructions are used.
Fifty seven percent children from age 6-16 studying in government schools, 24.6 percent are enrolled in private institutions while 1.3 studying in religious seminaries (Madrassahs). It means that there are three types of education provided to the children which is totally different from each other.
Government failed solely so far to introduce uniformity in our education system but people can hope for it as Imran Khan Chief of Pakistan Tehrik-e-Insaf had assured uniformity in education before general elections and after taking mandate in Khyber Pukhunkhwa, people hopes that he would not forget to introduce reforms in education.
Medium of instructions in schools remain a hell headache in Pakistan as some prefer schooling in English language while most of developed countries using native language as medium of instruction.
Previous provincial Government of ANP although succeeded after its legislation for using Pushto language as medium of instruction in schools but problem arise here as well as twenty different languages were used in the households in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa a recent study revealed. Statistics of study shows that 77% of household in the province using Pashto language while eleven percent using Hindko.
The survey asked parents which language they prefer as a medium of instructions in schools for their children, forty-five percent preferred Pushto and thirty-nine percent preferred Urdu while sixteen percent were willing to educate their children in English medium schools. It might also becoming factor to the dropout of students.
Besides this government schools having lack of facilities compared to private institutions which could also be a factor responsible for dropout of students as most of the students dropping out at class ten were studying at government schools. Government schools were not given required facilities and children more than hundred can be seen, accommodated in single classroom like chickens. Very few schools providing furniture to students and a small number of government schools would have playground for children. If we look it to statistics none of government school having computer lab for children at primary and elementary level while on other hand 30 percent of private schools having computer labs for the students at primary and elementary levels.
Only fifty-nine percent of government primary schools having useable water while only fifty-two percent having useable toilets. If we compare it with private institutions, 87 percent of private primary schools having useable water while 86 percent having useable toilets. Larger proportion of private primary schools having playgrounds compare to government primary institutions, only 25 percent of primary schools in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa having playgrounds while more than forty-five percent private schools own that.
It shows that government institutions were far behind in term of providing required facilities to students compared to private institutions therefore number of dropped out children were increasing day by day in governments schools. What can be solution to it, government schools is far better than private institutions in terms of receiving grants and having professional teaching staff then question arise why the outcome is nominal and yet far behind of private schools. Were grants were embezzled and staff was not sincerely working? If yes, government should take strict action against that as it was ruining the future of the nation.