Fodders & Feeding

Share on facebook
Share on twitter
Share on linkedin
Share on whatsapp

Basic Principles of Dairy Feeding


Two types of fodders are grown in Pakistan:

Kharif Fodders:
The fodders that are grown in summer season are called Kharif fodders. These fodders include Millet, Maize, Sorghum, Multicut Sorghum, Sudan grass, Mott grass, Sadabahar, Guara and Rawan.

Rabi Fodders:
The fodders that are grown in winter season are called Rabi fodders. These fodders include Burseem, Lucerne and Jai. 

Scarcity (shortage) Periods:
Generally, two scarcity periods in Pakistan: 

  1. May-June
  2. Dec-Jan

Solution: To make silage for these periods when green fodder is in excess. Sorghum and maize are best fodders for silage making. To adopt good fodder rotation plan. To grow perennial fodders such as sadabahar, mott grass, etc.

Feeding Regime:
Feed more green fodder to the animals because green fodders are the cheapest source of ME and CP.

Reduce the use of wheat straw because it is low in ME and CP. Secondly, it is costly than green fodders.

Major Requirements
Three major requirements of dairy animals are:
Water, Energy, Protein


Water is essentials for the animals. It composes 60-70% of body of animals and 85% of the milk. There should be 24 hours access of animals to good, fresh and clean water. A milking animal require more than 100 liters of good and clean water on daily basis. Generally 5 liters of water are required to produce 1 liter of milk. 

Restriction on free supply of good quality water will impact on milk production, feed intake, live weight gain and body conditioning.


Energy is measured as metabolizable energy (ME) .Energy is used in every body function. Energy is partitioned into different uses: 

Maintenance: Energy required for maintenance depends on animal size, activity, climate, physiological condition and health of the animal.

Live weight Gain: For an adult milking animal 40-60 MJME is required to raise 1 kg live weight.

Milk Production: Milk production and milk quality are directly related to energy inputs. e.g. To produce 1 liter milk containing 6% fat and 4.2% protein, 6.5 MJ ME required.

Pregnancy: Extra energy is required for the growth and vital functions of the fetus. e.g.  To support 26kg fetus, 24.7 MJ of ME extra energy required per day.


Protein containing amino acids are the building blocks of animal structures, cells, tissues, bones and muscles. In Pakistan, we are feeding a lot of energy to dairy animals but very less protein. So we should concentrate on energy as well as protein in case of dairy animal’s diet. Milking animals required 17-18% CP and 13-14% CP for non-milking animals in their diet.


Q1:  A farmer has two milking animals (1 buffalo and 1 cow). 600kg Buffalo is producing 8 liters of milk and 450kg cow is producing 21 liters of milk. Both animals are non-pregnant. What are their energy requirements?

Ans:  For Buffalo

  • Maintenance= 73MJ
  • Pregnancy = 0
  • Weight gain= 0
  • Milk production= 7.3 x 8 = 58.4 MJ
  • Total Requirement = 131.4 MJME

For Cow

  • Maintenance= 59 MJ
  • Pregnancy = 0
  • Weight gain= 0
  • Milk production= 5.8 x 21= 121.8 MJ
  • Total Requirement = 180.8 MJME

Q2: A farmer is feeding the following ration

  • Cottonseed cake (CSC) = 1kg
  • Wanda = 2kg
  • Wheat straw (WS) = 3kg
  • Maize fodder = 35kg


  • Cotton Seed Cake = Rs 660/mund
  • Wanda = Rs 520/mund
  • WS = Rs 200/mund
  • Maize fodder =Rs 50/mund

How many kgs of DM is he feeding?

What is the cost per MJME for each feed type?

How many MJME is he feeding?

What is the total CP % is he feeding?


Total DM

DM% in CSC= 90%
DM of CSC fed=1×90/100 = 0.9kg

DM% in Wanda= 90%
DM of Wanda fed=2×90/100 = 1.8kg

DM% in WS= 89%
DM of WS fed=3×89/100 = 2.67kg

DM% in Maize= 21%
DM of Maize fed=35×21/100 = 7.35kg

Total DM= 0.9+1.8+2.67+7.35= 12.72 kgs


Cost of CSC fed= 660/40  x 1 = Rs 16.5

MJ in 1Kg DM of CSC=11MJ

MJ of CSC fed=11 x 0.9 = 9.9 kg

Cost/ MJ = 16.5/9.9 = Rs 1.67

Cost of Wanda fed= 520/40  x 2 = Rs 26

MJ in 1Kg DM of Wanda=14MJ

MJ of Wanda fed=14 x 0.1.8= 25.2 kg

Cost/ MJ = 26/25.2 = Rs 1.03

Cost of WS fed= 200/40  x 3 = Rs 15

MJ in 1Kg DM of WS=6.4MJ

MJ of WS fed=6.4 x 2.67 = 17.088 kg

Cost/ MJ = 15/17.088 = Rs 0.88

Cost of Maize fed= 50/40  x 35 = Rs 43.75

MJ in 1Kg DM of Maize=10.5MJ

MJ of CSC fed=10.5 x 7.35 = 78.75 kg

Cost/ MJ = 43.75/78.75 = Rs 0.55

So it is proved that green fodder is the cheapest source of ME.

Total MJME
Total MJ of ME =9.9+25.2+17.088+78.75= 130.94MJ

@Submitted by:
Muhammad Nauman Manzoor
M.Sc. (Hons.) Animal Nutrition